Massive transfusion: Analysis of practices according to available medical devices.

Abstract : INTRODUCTION: An assessment of practices and available medical devices during the treatment of a massive haemorrhage has been realised in the shock unit of our hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parameters influencing transfusion flow rate have been identified. Medical devices and equipment to accelerate the flow rate were analyzed on the basis of manufacturers' data and users opinion in relation with their practices. RESULTS: The system, from blood bags to venous access, influences flow rate: red blood cell viscosity, catheter and pressure gradient. Three types of acceleration systems are available: accelerated transfusion set, pressure cuff with a gravity blood IV set and fast-flow fluid warmers. Their benefits and disadvantages are presented and discussed. DISCUSSION: Maximum flow rates noted by manufacturers are not the real values because some parameters such as venous catheter diameter (limitative factor) and the red blood cell viscosity (diluted or not) are not considered. The choice of an infusion system is mainly based on the technical capacities (flow rate fluctuations, pressure gradient on blood bags, warming, air purging), practical modalities of use (medical devices and assembly) and cost. The pressure cuff with transfusion gravity set should be limited to non-critical situations or during the assembly of the fast flow fluid warmers (but no warming fluids, no air embolism prevention). The accelerated transfusion set is not the best option for a shock unit because it needs an operator permanently. The fast-flow fluid warmers are recommended for all types of massive haemorrhages, they are more secure but they require a long time to be assembled.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 10, 2012 - 10:48:08 AM
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Cindy Bourne, Delphine Cabelguenne, Jean-Stéphane David, Catherine Rioufol, Vincent Piriou. Massive transfusion: Analysis of practices according to available medical devices.. Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, Elsevier Masson, 2012, epub ahead of print. ⟨10.1016/j.annfar.2012.01.031⟩. ⟨hal-00686395⟩

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